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The condensation of data is necessary in statistical analysis. This is because a large number of big figures are not only confusing; however, also difficult to analyze. Therefore, in order to reduce the complexity of data and make them comparable it is necessary that various phenomena, which are being compared, are reduced to a single figure. The first of such measures is averages or measures of central tendency. The measures of central tendency are a typical value of the entire group or data. It describes the characteristics of the entire mass of data.

It reduces the complexity of data and makes them to compare. According to Prof. R.A. Fisher, “The inherent inability of the human mind to grasp in its entirety a large body of numerical data which compels people to seek relatively few constants that will adequately describe the data”. The human mind is incapable of remembering the entire mass of unwieldy data. So a simple figure is used to describe the series which must be a representative number. It is generally called as “a measure of central tendency or the average”.

When it comes to the definition of an average, there are various definitions as detailed below:

  • Average is a value which is typical or representative of a set of data;
  • Average is an attempt to find one single figure to describe the whole of the figures;
  • The average is sometimes described as number which is typical of the whole group;
  • An average is a single number describing some features of a set of data;
  • An average is only a short way of expressing an arithmetical result;
  • An average is a typical value in the sense that it is sometimes employed to represent all the individual values in a series or of a variable.

It is clear from the above definition that the average is called as a type as it is a typical value of the entire data and is a measure of central tendency.

There are various kinds of averages as detailed below:

  • Mathematical averages classified into arithmetic mean, geometric mean, harmonic mean and quadratic mean.
  • The arithmetic mean is classified into simple and weighted;
  • The averages of location (position) are classified into median and mode;
  • The commercial (business) averages are classified into moving average, progressive average and composite average.

The following are the important types of averages:

  1. Arithmetic mean;
  2. Median
  3. Mode
  4. Geometric mean
  5. Harmonic mean
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Interesting Facts About The Atlas ۲ مرداد ۱۳۹۶

An atlas is a collection of maps in the form of a book. There are different kinds of atlases available in the market today.

A collection of maps bound into book form is called an ATLAS. There are also atlases in various multimedia formats today. It has geographic features and political boundaries. An atlas usually features:
– Geopolitics
– social aspects
– religious traditions and
– economic statistics

Claudius Ptolemy, a geographer, constructed from his calculation the first book of atlas. He worked in Alexandria in 150 A.D. In 1477, his first edition was published in Bologna. It was illustrated with a set of 27 maps. This means it was not known then whether these maps were original engraved versions or otherwise.

In 1544, trading centers in Rome and Venice produced many maps. The publishers worked separately and produced maps based on their needs. These maps vary in sizes and later on, they bound them together into composite works. These works were called IATO or Italian, Assembled to Order. It was more often called Lafreri Atlases.

Abraham Ortelius was recognized in issuing the first modern atlas in May 20, 1570. The Theatrum Orbis Terrarum of Ortelius has about 53 map-sheets. It actually covers the whole world. This work reduced the available maps into a uniform size.

Gerardo Mercator introduced the earliest atlases in 1595.

The word ATLAS is a common basis of mistaken belief. This is because two mythical figures are connected with the making of maps.

– King Atlas – the mythical king of Mauretania.
A great philosopher, mathematician and astronomer based on legend who allegedly made the first celestial globe. It was possibly Mercator’s atlas that the legend was referring to. This was when “Atlas” was first coined. This was also where even a description of the King on the title page was included.

– Atlas (from Greek Mythology) – He is the son of Titan Iapetus and Clymene (or Asia). He is also the brother of Prometheus.
Atlas was punished by Zeus so as to bear the weight of the heavens on his back. In Homer’s Odyssey, he refers to Atlas as the one who knows the depths of the whole sea. He kept the tall pillars that hold the Heavens and the Earth.

In arts, Atlas is represented as the one carrying the heavens or the Celestial Sphere on his shoulders. The earliest representation is the Farnese Atlas. You will see this at Museo Archeologico Nazionale Napoli in Naples, Italy. This figure is more often found on the cover or title-page of atlases.

In modern times, publishers in different countries can reprint maps from different places. Maps displaying roads and transport links are known as Road Atlases. These show transport links and not geographical information.
Road Atlases come in many shapes, sizes and scales. It has motoring organizations in:
– UK
– Republic of Ireland
– Mainland Europe
– North America
– Australia and
– New Zealand

There are different styles of maps, depending on individual countries on a large scale. Thus, it is the user who can find this more useful for them. An example of this is the AA’s Close-up map of Britain. The map is of a large scale. It is good for driving on and off road. The scale helps place tracks and conventional roads.

European maps differ in scales as well. When people buy maps of Europe they also need to consider where they are traveling to. Thus, maps are sold in the United States and Canada, having scales that more often the best. These maps can be used for businesses. It can also be used either by tourists or just for general interest.

Australian and New Zealand maps have smaller scale. It is made to be sold for the European market. It was made by motoring organizations or map makers. This was made so that they will have an advantage on knowing the layouts of:
– Roads
– railways and
– rivers

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Few days ago, I was chatting with a friend of mine. We were talking about his life and experience in the drug rehab center he was admitted to. Something I came to know was shocking, his life in the rehab was nothing better than a living hell. It was pretty hard for him to overcome the withdrawal symptoms. But, somehow he managed to go through it and he is back to his normal life now. After that I searched the internet looking for these problems. What I found was more shocking; many addicts even commit suicide when they are unable to tolerate the grueling pain during the rehabilitation process. This kind of tragic incidents occurs often in many rehabs. Then what is the point of getting admitted in a rehab??

This question is no doubt very confusing. If a person ends his or her life, unable to bear the pain, then he or she should not be admitted in a rehab. Although such tragedy can occur in a rehab, many people also come back and fully cured. If a person is not admitted in a rehab, then also he will die due to the effect of the deadly drugs. So, it is better to try the rehabilitation in a rehab. Searching for some good and well known rehabs, I found the name of the Sunset Malibu Recovery Rehab. I was simply amazed when I saw the facilities and treatment they provide. I have not encountered any other rehabs providing such facilities like that of the Malibu rehab.

The treatment programs conducted by the expert professionals in the Malibu rehab center are world class and very effective. Moreover, they have got a good rate of success in curing people and helping them return back to their normal life. Till now, there has not been a single case of patients running away or committing suicide in this rehab. There also lies the credit of the Malibu rehab. The comfort and luxury that the Malibu rehab provides for the inmates are highly soothing for the mind and body of the patient, which helps them to overcome the pain during the prolonged treatment period. These facilities are also provided for the close relatives of the patient also. The close relatives are allowed to stay so that the patients do not feel away from home.

The individualized treatment processes are conducted by highly experienced medical staff. Treatment seldom fails in the Malibu rehab. They look to each and every possible step that can be applied and do not leave any hole in their treatment process. Apart from the treatment process, different other activities like cycling, swimming, hiking, meditation classes etc are also conducted.

Another side of the treatment process is the environment, which is extraordinarily soothing and calms the mind. The patients get to a critical mental condition during the process. That is when they commit suicide, but as told earlier this is the difference between Malibu rehab with that of the others.

If you want to admit any of your close people in a rehab, then the Malibu rehab is the best alternative. They will guarantee the success of rehabilitation.

منبع

The Dual Culture ۲ مرداد ۱۳۹۶

Abstract

We have two cultures without an intersection between them; one of them is the so called ´traditional culture´ which enjoys the best of the establishment; the other, the real culture, is made for people that has given the best for the mankind, but is let to the ostracism for those same people whose aim is the political and economical power of the society.

Comments about Two Cultures

There is no doubt that there is a very big gap between ‘traditional culture’ and ‘scientific culture´, but now it seems there is an effort to bring them together and that goes most of the side of scientists. This can be noticed in the large number of books that disseminate science and technology shaping the technical difficulties of its peculiarities to a terminology more accessible to the public; is no longer difficult to find people talking about elementary particles, quanta, photons, space-time spin etc.. and theories that support them are the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. But still remains the difficulty of understanding between these two cultures .. In my opinion it looks like it has its origin in our country, in two instances. The first comes from the fact that traditional culture is firmly established since the creation of human faculties without participation of the basic sciences such as physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics. For example, only about the second half twenty century brought the first schools of physics, while in Europe were already well-established secular universities. With other disciplines seems that the same thing happened. An example of that traditional culture is still predominant is the proliferation of academies of letters throughout the country in which people of many other professions and the political establishment are the majority. Another circumstance seems to be more characteristic of the peculiarity of scientific activity. I mean that scientific activity is due to its nature more solitary and more dedicated to discussion of the enigmas of the Universe which leaves little freedom for the scientist to have a more worldly life socialized. It’s almost like a priesthood that can generate incorrigible domestic and psychological conflicts (Einstein’s biographers say he is holed up in his office for weeks without food law). But as I said at the outset, the efforts of scientists to expand the contact between the two cultures can bear fruit for our development. Everyone knows that in the current technological world there is little room for speculation and guesses in almost all human activities. In almost everything there is need for planning and estimates that require high reliability. The robot is already exerting almost human activities and will not take long for these machines have similar behavior to that of man; just one more step and we have the quantum cybernetics. At the other end of the physics scale is the exploration of space with the planning of man’s journey to Mars and perhaps far away already in the first half of this century. For all this is that the traditional culture needs to align with the times …

منبع

INTRODUCTION

Any keen observer in Yaounde, a social scientist, a journalist, or any researcher would notice that Cameroon`s capital city revolves around the concept of “month-end”. Around the 23rd to the 27th of every month, long queues can be seen in front of banks and other financial institutions of people eager to collect their salaries. The advent of the automatic teller machines has not eased the lining-up process. Even a taxi driver can tell you that civil servants have been paid because suddenly there are traffic congestions in the city provoked by the many more private cars in circulation. The explanation is that when salaried workers collect their pay, they run their vehicles for two or three days before parking them to continue going about in taxis which is relatively cheaper and within the reach of all city dwellers. Such seasonal private car drivers use taxicabs till the next month end arrives.

Another peculiarity of Yaounde, which goes beyond the civil servant, is the tradition of wearing suits. Western style suits, a legacy of the colonial administration have stayed back 50 years after independence to epitomize the civil service, or office and white-collar work. Workers in government ministries (services centraux), state corporations, private firms, commercial banks, and diplomatic missions dress formally by wearing suits irrespective of sex or duty post.

WHY PEOPLE WEAR SUITS IN YAOUNDE

۱٫    Nature of Job and Work Environment. Workers in offices or services that relate with the general public are required to wear formal dresses and by implication suits in order to convey an image of seriousness. Max Weber`s Bureaucracy is also depicted in the way people dress.

۲٫    Climate or Environmental Temperature. As compared to other Cameroonian cities like Douala and Garoua, Yaounde is relatively colder so people need to wear warm clothing to keep warm. For example, during working hours, the average temperature in Douala reads 35 degrees Celsius, Garoua hits 42 degrees Celsius, while Yaounde fluctuates around 19 degrees Celsius.

۳٫    Affordability. As a formal attire, a new suit can cost as little as 25000 CFA francs. Imports from China have brought down the prices of textiles and many more tailors are setting up shop in Yaounde. Suits, as formal attires are more affordable than African traditional regalia. For example, while one can get a new suit for 25000 CFA francs, the Bamenda gown is not cheaper than 50000CFA francs, while Nigerian and Senegalese dresses are even more expensive.

۴٫    Availability of Second Hand Dresses. Second hand suits are regularly imported from Europe, the USA, and even from the South East Asia. Some of such suits have been nick named “Mokolo” because of the second hand market from where they are bought. Such second hand suits sell for as little as 10000 CFA francs or even cheaper.

۵٫    Compulsory Attire in Some Professional Schools. Students of some professional schools are required to wear suits everyday as part of grooming for their future professional roles as administrators and diplomats. This is the case with the National School of Administration and Magistracy ENAM, and the International Relations Institute of Cameroon IRIC.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The culture of wearing suits in the city of Yaounde directly leads us to the problem of dry-cleaning them. Given that suits require expertise in handling and cleaning. This delicate task is usually performed professionally by dry cleaners that now have more outlets than drinking spots in Yaounde.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

۱٫    Does the wearing of suits in Yaounde depend on the availability of dry cleaning services?

۲٫    Does the wearing of suits in Yaounde depend on the affordability of dry cleaning services?

۳٫    Is the proliferation of dry cleaning outlets in Yaounde a function of the culture of suit wearing?

OBJECTIVE AND HYPOTHESIS

The objective of this study is to explore dry cleaning services in Yaounde. My hypothesis is that the dry cleaning of suits is a business or economic activity that serves a social function in perpetuating the culture of suit wearing in Yaounde.

METHODOLOGY

The design is the cross sectional survey research particularly a descriptive design that involves one time observation. I opted to do an ethnographic survey by observing and interviewing workers in dry cleaning firms.

Given that the different dry cleaning companies have outlets in many neighbourhoods in Yaounde, I chose one street and focused my attention on all the dry cleaning firms located in it. I walked the street several times to note the strategic locations of the dry cleaning firms, compare them with other business activities in the same vicinity, note their opening and closing hours, the peak periods for customers to come calling and so on and so forth.

As an observing participant, I visited the different dry cleaning shops as a customer, and then interviewed workers and also compared the service offered in each firm.

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS

On the street from Marché Biyem Assi to Biyem Assi Lycee, a distance of less than 400 meters there are 8 dry cleaning shops namely;

۱٫    Fratenité Express Pressing

۲٫    Perfection Pressing

۳٫    Mister Clean Pressing

۴٫    Fiesta Pressing

۵٫    Reference Pressing

۶٫    Fusion Pressing

۷٫    Promo Express Pressing

۸٫    Listel Pressing

On the whole, there is an average of 1 dry cleaning shop every 50 meters. There are more dry cleaning shops on this street than drinking spots (6), provision store (5), hair dressing saloons (4), barbing studios (3), tailoring workshops (3), bookshops (3), Chinese shops (2), car wash (1), and money transfer firm (1).

The only activity featuring more that dry cleaning shops on this street is the mobile telephone call box (12).

All eight firms claim they can dry clean suits within 1 hour but it turned out that the shortest time taken to deliver a clean suit back to its owner varies from 2 to 3 days.

Of all 8 firms, only 1 has washing and dry cleaning machines on the spot. All the others collect dresses and take to some other part of town for dry cleaning.

The price for dry cleaning a suit, that is a jacket and a pair of trousers, ranges from 1800 CFA francs to 3500 CFA francs. Those who charge more than 2500 CFA francs claim that those who charge less do not really use any modern machines to dry clean suits, but take them to some washer man refugees from Chad, Niger, Mali or some other West African country who was them in a stream before ironing them locally. But all the firms insist they do but modern dry cleaning in which they employ starch and other chemicals to renew the fabric.

The variety in the quality of service also varies from those who dry clean torn dresses and return them in their torn condition irrespective of the money collected while others even inflict damages on healthy suits before returning them to the owners. Such poor service results in conflicts which may even force the dry cleaners to completely replace the torn dresses.

All the dry cleaning firms employ young ladies to serve at the reception counters, and pay them salaries ranging from 30000 CFA francs to 100000 CFA francs depending on the longevity of the employee and the prestigious image of the firm.

Even though the dry cleaners attend to different kinds of dresses, they all have more customers with suits than other dresses. There are also more individual than corporate clients.

Given that competition is cut-throat, many firms try to entice customers by offering free cleaning coupons after dry cleaning a number of suits. Some open very early, as early as 6:30 AM and close around 9:00 PM. Others call the clients or send telephone text messages to alert the customers that their dresses are ready for collection. Still others prefer to stay ahead of the competition by collecting and delivering suits from door-to-door.

CONCLUSIONS

Going only by the findings of this survey, it is not immediately clear whether many people in Yaounde wear suits more because it is easy to dry clean them or because of some other social pressures. The profile of the customers recorded in the different firms however gives the hint that the availability of dry cleaning firms and their ingenious ways of enticing customers can encourage people to wear their suits.

The price range for dry cleaning is within the reach of those who can afford to buy suits, which is a motivating factor for them to dry clean the suits regularly and consequently wear them.

The dry cleaners themselves justify their existence by the need to help suit wearers to take better care of their dresses and the need to provide jobs to those who are employed by this activity.

DIFFICULTIES AND SHORTCOMINGS

The following difficulties and shortcomings were encountered with this study.

۱٫    The time available for the survey, one month, was too short to conduct any meaningful Anthropological research to fully explore the issues.

۲٫    A survey of dry cleaners alone cannot categorically tell us whether those who wear suits wear them more because it is easier to clean them. A survey of both dry cleaners and suit wearers can best verify this.

۳٫    The use of interviewing in surveying a business activity is very difficult because many firms do not comply with taxation or social insurance requirements and are adamant to have their employees talking to researchers. The fear of competitors doing industrial espionage did not help matters.

۴٫    The researcher with inadequate skills in the dry cleaning activity and not enough time to establish rapport could not easily infiltrate the activity. As such it was easier to participate as a customer, an observing participant, instead of as a participant observer which could have generated more reliable and valid data.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Asika, N. 1991. Research Methodology in the Behavioural Sciences. Lagos: Longman Nigeria.

Bernard, H. R. 2006. Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Oxford: AltaMira Press.

Bonvillain, N. 2006. Cultural Anthropology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Clifford, J and G. E. Marcus 1986. Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Ember, C. R. and M Ember 1990. Anthropology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Fraenkel, J. R. and N. E. Wallen 2006. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Ritzer, G. 1992. Sociological Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill

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How To Calculate Book Spine Thickness ۲ مرداد ۱۳۹۶

If you need to determine the thickness of a book’s spine before it’s printed to find the size of artwork required, use the following formula:

۱۰ divided by 176, multiplied by the number of pages of text within the book, divided by 90, multiplied by the weight of the paper in gsm, add 1mm for the crease in the cover and this will give you the book block thickness in millimetres. Add 3mm to this figure to account for the cover and you have the spine thickness of a finished book.

Use our simple spine thickness calculator

If you’re having a hardback book printed, artwork for your hardback book cover needs to be larger than for a softback book because the cover image needs to be able to wrap around the edges of the greyboard card used to create the hard spine and covers.

So if you needed to determine the artwork area of a hardback book cover, the formula would be used as follows:

Hardback Book Front Cover
Width: 210mm + 5mm = 215mm
Height: 297mm + 5mm = 303mm
(+15mm on outside, top and bottom edges for image bleed)

Hardback Book Back Cover
Width: 210mm + 5mm = 215mm
Height: 297mm + 5mm = 303mm
(+15mm on outside, top and bottom edges for image bleed)

Hardback Book Spine Thickness
Artwork Width = 10.6mm + 3mm
Artwork Height: 297mm + 5mm = 303mm
(+15mm on top and bottom edges for image bleed)

Softback Book Covers
As the cover doesn’t wrap around a softback book the only addition needed is a 3mm bleed around the edge of the combined covers and spine.

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Organizational Politics ۲ مرداد ۱۳۹۶

Power & politics is the name of the game in almost all organizations. It involves intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals & group.We are basically power hungry.The scarcity of  resources is the basic reason of this power game.

Five Common Sources of uncertainty within Organizations

  1. Unclear objectives.
  2. Vague performance measures.
  3. Ill-defined decision processes.
  4. Strong individual or group competition.
  5. Any type of change in organization or environments.

Political Tactics Used in Organizations.

  1. Attacking or blaming others.
  2. Using information as apolitical tool.
  3. Creating a favorable image (impression management)
  4. Forming powerful coalitions with strong allies.
  5. Associating with influential people.
  6. Creating obligations (Creating social debts)

Tips for Managing Organization Politics

۱٫ Reduce Uncertainty in the system

  • Make clear the bases & processes for evaluation.
  • Differentiate rewards among high & low performers.
  • Make immediate & performance –related rewards.

۲٫ Reduce Competition

  • Try to minimize resource competition among managers.
  • Promotion should be based on an attitude that puts organization interests ahead of personal power interests.

Strategies to Gain Power

  1. Maintain contact with powerful people.
  2. Embrace or Demolish.
  3. Divide & rule.
  4. Manipulate / use classified information.
  5. Make a quick showing.
  6. Collect & use IOU.
  7. Avoid decision-engagement.
  8. Progress one step at a time.
  9. Wait for crises.                                                                                                           ۱۰٫ Take counsel with care.

Personal Initiative :

۱٫ Go beyond the Job: Do more than you are asked to do.  Identify & fix problems.  Help things move along quickly & smoothly.

۲٫ Follow Through On New Ideas: Work on some thing original. Building support for new ideas.

۳٫ Don’t be Defeated by Criticism–Learn from it:Improve your ideas from reactions, comments and criticism.  Build bridges of support by incorporating other’s ideas.

۴٫Look ahead & around: Look around for interesting projects.  Build your network to learn new things and find new opportunities.

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Looking for the best, cheapest and FREE kids’ swimming lessons, instructors and facilities in Houston TX? You’re not alone. There has been a surge in searches for places that provide affordable instructions when it comes to deep and shallow water swimming in Sugarland, Katy, Stafford, Missouri City, Pasadena, Galveston, Clear Lake and all over the Houston environs. This is because parents are coming to grips with the fact that teaching your child how to swim at an early age is both prudent and the right thing to do. If you are looking for place which is also all-weather and that provides indoor-swimming facilities for children, here other places you can begin your search:

Downtown Houston and the Heights Area
Missouri City
Westchase District
Alief
Mission Bend
West University
Katy
Memorial City
Spring Branch and more..

It is important that your child learns how to swim early. Many adults struggle with water-sports simply because they do not know how to swim and have a hard time navigating around a large water body. The reasons for wanting to teach your child how to swim early are obvious:

One: Learning how to swim acquaints the child with water sports and also removes the fear of being inside water. This means that the child is now able to enjoy a much richer life.

Second: Learning how to swim is an extremely healthy and safe way of exercising. Swimming is one of the most recommended exercises that has been known to tone all the muscles of the body simultaneously and also lead to a much healthier heart. A healthy body, they say, also leads to a healthy mind and a more productive life.

Finally: Teaching kids to swim is a wise decision especially for safety concerns. In a time when swimming pools and water games are at an all-time high, it is essential that your child is familiar with what to do if they were ever in a situation where they need to navigate inside water, whether it be at sea, at a swimming pool, a lake or a river. You child is also able to rescue others, whether people or pets which may be at risk of drowning.

Finding a facility in Houston TX can be daunting especially if you do not know where to look. One of the best ways to search is off course is to use the Internet which will help you narrow down. One can also check the local yellow pages. There are a few facilities within the environs of Houston which also provide in-door warm water swimming lessons.

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Finishing sanders are used to produce the smoothest, finest finishes to your craft and carpentry projects. Helping craftsmen achieve the most seamless, professional results, finish sanders do a seriously good deed to the tool and woodworking community. To get the most unwaveringly, brilliantly smooth results, however, there are four finish sanders from Festool and Porter-Cable that truly cast shadows over the competition.

Festool brings craftsmen the Rotex RO 150 and the RTS 400 EQ finishing sanders – both of which are tools that are truly difficult to put down. The Rotex RO 150 is a heavy-duty, high-performance sander with the power to tackle any application and the refinement to do it with delicacy and style. It features a simple dual-sanding system which allows operators to sand in a random orbital mode for uncommonly fine sanding or switch into a gear-driven, aggressive mode for rapid stock removal. A (detachable) auxiliary handle provides you with greater control during these more aggressive sanding jobs. With variable speed control, constant speed under load, and thermal and over-load protection the sander can aggressively or delicately match each application. Despite this big power, however, the tool weighs only 5 lbs, boasts very low vibration, and has a superior ergonomic design to bring craftsmen a tough package that’s also simple and surprisingly pleasant to work with. The sander’s gearbox is completely enclosed to protect the bearing unit from dust and debris; this vastly extends the life of the tool and its components. Additionally, a jet-stream dust extraction system ensures your work environment is a clean and safe space.

Festool continues innovating the finish sander with the RTS 400 EQ flat surface finish sander. With strength, balance, and truly intelligent design the tool is, essentially, in a league of its own. Weighing only 2.4 lbs the sander is compact and lightweight, and with an ergonomic design it is comfortable to operate despite continuous or awkward use. The sander’s balanced design (with vibration stop technology) and simple to operate speed control system render the tool uncommonly smooth and give craftsmen the ability to appropriately ascribe different speeds to each different application. The tool’s orbital sanding motion produces full pad contact with the sanding surface, thus, minimizing any swirl effect and yielding strikingly smooth finishes. With a narrow profile rectangular pad design, craftsmen have superior access to tight spaces, the design additionally allows for close sanding on edges and frame members for the most professional finishes from edge to edge. Abrasive removal is quick and simple with the tool’s resilient pad hooks and hard-wearing fabric backing – this also, pleasantly, contributes to a longer abrasive and pad life.

Additionally, Porter-Cable builds some of the finest, most trusted finishing sanders in the industry offering craftsmen designs and durability to withstand heavy-use and rough jobsite environments. Delivering the entire spectrum of “really great finishing sander” perks, Porter-Cable’s 330 and 344 offer the most commendable features in a seriously high-quality sander. The 330 is small (at only 4 lbs) and ultra simple and comfortable to use. Despite being a smaller tool, the sander is still incredibly sturdy and incorporates rubber posts to isolate your hand from vibration; essentially the tool delivers aggressive sanding action without the stress and fatigue of heavy vibration. The tool orbits at 14,000 OPM to ensure the smoothest, most superfine finishes. Altogether, the 330 is compact, lightweight, comfortable, buttery smooth, and delivers an incredibly fine finish.

The 344 (5″) random orbit sander is another treasure from Porter-Cable that exceeds all expectations. Using its powerful and yet oh so delicate style, the tool provides craftsmen with ridiculously smooth surfaces. It’s optimized ergonomics are designed to enhance the comfort and usability of the tool, and weighing only 4.05 lbs, the tool is a feather weight with a furious appetite to finish your surfaces with a super-finer quality unlike any other. With a 3 amp motor and super fast 12,000 OPM this sander offers superior consistency, blending, and durability. Additionally, the tool is simple to use, comfortable to operate, ultra smooth, and easy to maintain rendering it, basically, a quality sanding essential.

Each of these sanders is sure to offer you striking results and professionally fine finishes that will leave you smiling after every use.


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It is essential for young artists to live in a nurturing art community that has a good concentration of art societies and centers and among like-minded individuals. For America’s artistic people, BusinessWeek.com and Sperling’s Best Places have come up with the best U.S. Cities to be creative.

The top 10 cities were derived from metro areas across the country that has the highest concentration of artistic establishments. Sperling’s BestPlaces calculated this by means of the art and culture Index that took into account the number and size of artistic resources such as museums, philharmonic orchestras, dance companies, theater troupes, library resources and college arts programs.

Other criteria considered were the percentage of young residents aged between 25 and 34, and population diversity. The population index measured the probability of meeting another person of a different race or ethnicity.

The selection of cities was also based on a low cost of living although in some metros using the cost of living index that considered the cost of housing, food, transportation, etc. Some cities where the average living cost was above the national average of 100 were included because of the other favorable factors such as number of art establishments and art resources, diversity and age of population. All these three indexes had the maximum score of 100.

The ten best U.S. cities that are ideal for artists which offer ample artistic resources, the presence of a young, diverse population and a relatively low cost of living are:

۱٫ Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles tops the list with 56.105 art establishments per 100,000 people and 15.3 % of population age 25-34.

۲٫ Santa Fe, NM: Santa Fe has 36.449 art establishments per 100,000 people and 11.85 % of population age 25-34.

۳٫ Carson City, NV: Carson City has 24.701 art establishments per 100,000 people and 12.1 % of population age 25-34.

۴٫ New York City, NY: New York City has 14.852 art establishments per 100,000 people and 15.2 % of population age 25-34.

۵٫ Kingston, NY: Kingston has 13.128 art establishments per 100,000 people and 12.24 % of population age 25-34.

۶٫ Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA: Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura has 12.649 art establishments per 100,000 people and 12.89 % of population age 25-34.

۷٫ Nashville, TN: Nashville has 11.443 art establishments per 100,000 people and 14.74 % of population age 25-34.

۸٫ Boulder, CO: Boulder has 11.076 art establishments per 100,000 people and 17.33 % of population age 25-34.

۹٫ San Francisco, CA: San Francisco has 9.682 art establishments per 100,000 people and 15.75 % of population age 25-34.

۱۰٫ Nassau-Suffolk County, NY: Nassau-Suffolk County has 8.943 art establishments per 100,000 people and 11.52 % of population age 25-34.

If you are an artist, then these U.S. cities offer the best options to start your art profession or career.

منبع
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